This plant grows on hillside meadows, edges of forests, and sometimes it can be found up to 1500 m a.s.l. Its leaf, flower and fruit are collected. It is used for mild cases of heart disease. It increases the mobility of heart muscle. It has an effect of a mild antiarrhythmic.
This plant is found next to roads, on sandy areas and in shade. Upper part of this plant is collected. It is used as a bitter aromatic remedy for stomachache and appetite.
Its tasty berries are eaten fresh, but they are also used in making of delicious products such as juices, jams, compotes, etc. In folk medicine, its leaf is used for lowering blood sugar, as well as treating kidneys, urinary and respiratory tract, cleansing blood, and tried fruits are used for non-specific diarrhea. Because its toxicity is not researched enough, it is not recommended to self-medicate using blueberry leaf.
This is a circumboreal species which grows in swamps, wet areas, near rivers and lakes in mountain regions. Its leaf is used. Bitter tonic, mild antispasmodic and diuretic. It is used in treating rheumatism, rheumatic arthritis, and especially muscle rheumatism.
It grows on dry meadows, next to road; it has a stem with leaves and flowers. It is used for different ailments of gastrointestinal tract, pain and stomach cramps, diarrhea and appetite. In folk medicine it is used as an antiseptic.
The Black Poplar
It is present at wet meadows, forest edges, or next to mountain springs. In Germany, this plant is used in treating scurvy. However, the entire plant is poisonous and it shouldn’t be used. The black poplar is often picked up because it is pretty and decorative; therefore it is endangered and put on the list of protected plant species.
It is present at meadows and edges of forests. It is often found on mountains up to subalpine belt. Sweet and tasty fruits are rich with vitamins, minerals, sugar, pectin, etc. A tea is made of its leaves, and in folk medicine it is used for treating diarrhea and in tea mixtures for liver diseases.
It grows on pastures and wet meadows of subalpine and alpine belt. Its root and flower are used in medicine. The root is used as cough medicine. In folk medicine, the flower is used for treating anxiety, hysteria, fear, heart weakness.
Yarrow achillea lingulata
This is another yarrow species which grows in areas of high mountains. It grows in green areas at high altitudes, and it is found on Bjelasica. There is no data on how it is used in folk medicine, but it has similar chemical composure as previous species from this genus.
St John’s Wort
Widely present in moderate belt of Europe and Asia. It grows on meadows and pastures, as well as forests. The above-ground part of the plant is used in treating. It is used in treating psychovegetative disorders, milder depressions, nervousness, anxiety, as stress-relief in menopause, as well as for treating stomach ulcers. Externally, its oil is used for healing wounds, burns and injuries.
The Great Yellow Gentian
It is used as a bitter remedy in treating stomach ailments. It is used for appetite in treating anorexia. It is contraindicated for people with high blood pressure and ulcer. This plant is very rare in Montenegro today and it is on the list of protected plants.
Widely present, mostly in forests and meadows, often in hillside-mountain region. Many hybrids are grown in order to exploit the fruit containing fruit acids, sugars, pectin, vitamin C, minerals, iron, phosphorus and calcium. Its leaf is used for rinsing in mild infections of oral cavity.
The Spotted Gentian
It is present on mountains of middle and south Europe, rocky pastures and coniferous forests. It is used as bitter remedy in treating stomach ailments. It is used for increasing appetite in treating anorexia. It is contraindicated with people with high blood pressure and ulcer. It is rare in Montenegro and it is on the list of protected plants.
This plant is compost. It is present at springs, streams, rivers, rarely in stagnant waters. In folk medicine it is used for washing out oral cavity and throat, as well as treating diabetes and weakness. Its fresh leaves are often used as a common salad. This plant is found at spring of Biograd Lake on Bjelasica, at 1800 m a.s.l.
Its fruit is used in diet, and it contains vitamins C, A, B1 and B2, as well as lemon, apple, and other fruit acids, flavonoids, sugars. In folk medicine, its leaf is used as diuretic, especially in treating arthritis, rheumatic diseases, diarrhea, spastic cough, rarely externally in treating wounds.
Achillea Abrotanoides Yarrow
This plant is endemic to west Balkans; it was discovered and described by famous botanist Roberto Visiani. It is usually found on Orijen. It is used in folk medicine the same as ordinary yarrow.
It is found in south Europe mostly on mountains. It grows on dry meadows and pastures, on sunny slopes. Both rhizome and above-ground part of the plant are collected. A bitter tonic remedy is used in enhancing appetite and strength.
Medicinal Plants and Forest Fruits
It rich and diverse herbal world of Montenegro, medicinal and aromatic representatives of flora have a special place. It is considered that there are around 400 species.
Some of them are:
- Achillea Abrotanoides Yarrow
- Yarrow achillea lingulata
- White Wormwood
- Silver Thistle
- Single-seeded Hawthorn
- Willow gentian
- The Great Yellow Gentian
- The Spotted Gentian
- St John’s Wort
- Hacquetia Rpipactis
- Mountain Germander
- The black poplar
This plant is present in dry limestone areas and slopes of mountain areas. It is very popular in folk medicine; it is primarily used in treating organs of digestive and reparative system. There is a saying that mountain germander can “rise people from the dead”.
This plant is found on wet meadows, and edges of forests. It is often in areas of beech and spruce forest. The rhizome of the plant is used. In folk medicine it is used in treating jaundice (especially after it has been treated).
This plant is found on dry, shady, grassy and bushy areas and rocky slopes of mountain belt. The rhizome of the plant is used. It is effective against germs, fungus, as a diuretic and antispasmodic. It is also used in treating spasms in digestive tract.
This plant grows near roads, walls, plowland, and meadows. The root and above-ground part of the plant with flowers are used as a mild diuretic and in treating appetite loss.
It is found in areas of beech and fir forests, in cuts, next to streams and springs in mountain areas. The root of the plant is used as antioxidant.